Data types and declaraion
- Real (same as double in C-series languages )
- Logical (.TRUE. and .FALSE.)
- Whole-array arithmetic (similar to some functional programming)
- Column major order/indexing (inherited by R/Matlab, unlike C/Python), therefore, a(1,1), a(2,1), a(3,1) will be faster to index.
! ways to declare data ! Keyword `parameter` means immutable constant integer, parameter :: a = 1, b = 2 ! or integer, parameter :: a, b a = 1 b = 2 !character character(len=4) :: first character(5) :: last_name ! String concatenation full_name = first_name//' '//last_name ! ways to declare arrays real :: vec(10) real, dimension(10,2) :: vec !dynamic arrays, also called allocatable arrays integer, allocatable :: a(:)
Derived types are “struct” in C/C++.
A derived type is a special form of data type that can encapsulate other built-in types as well as other derived types
!create a derived type type :: t_pair integer :: x real :: y end type ! use t_pair type(t_pair) :: pair pair%x = 1 pair%y = 0.1 ! or do this at once type(t_pair) :: pair pair = t_pair(x=1, y=0.1)
Implicit and explicit declaration
FORTRAN has a historical feature called implicit typing which allows variable types to be inferred by the compiler based on the first letter of the variable (stupid). Basically, any variable that began with I, J, K, L, M, or N was an integer, and it was a real (floating point) otherwise.
Anyway, always use
implict none to override this stupid declaring!
Program: Top-level unit that can be invoked only from the operating system. It contains sub-program as following.
Function: An executable subprogram that is invoked from expressions and always returns a single result. No side effects.can only call it from the main program or another procedure.
Subroutine: Modify multiple arguments in-place but can’t be used in expressions. Cause side effcts. (side effects can be prevented by pure statement)
Module: A nonexecutable collection of variable, function, and subroutine definitions (since F90). The variable declaration and procedure definition sections (function and subroutine) are separated with a contains statement.
Submodule: Extends an existing module and is used for defining variable and procedure definitions that only that module can access; useful for more complex apps and libraries
In FORTRAN function/subroutine, dummy parameters are same as formal argument (形参) in other languages. In other languages, dummy arguments equals unused arguments.
In subroutine, INTEND (IN): indicating take value from outside and cannot be modified
INTEND (OUT): indicating that their values will be computed and passed to the outside.
! function always return a result total = sum(1, 2) ! subroutine modifies input parameters ! and must be called by *call* call add(a, 3) ! define module module mod_test end module mod_test ! like from xx import xx in Python use mod_test, only: xxx
Standard streams include standard input/output/error. 标准输入stdin是指从键盘输入，标准输出stdout是指输出到终端， 如printf, system.out.println(). 标准错误stderr是另外一种输出流，用于输出错误消息或诊断.
general I/O STATEMENTS
READ(unit, format) item1, item2,... WRITE(unit, format) item1, item2,... ! In many cases we use * which tell the compiler to use any format it likes WRITE(*, *) item1, item2, ... READ(*, *) item1, item2,...
File handler: a identifier assigned to an open file that is currently being utilized by an operating system
An I/O unit is like a file handle in other programming languages. It’s a unique identifier that’s assigned to a file when you open it.
The first asterisk
* means the input comes from the keyboard in a READ statement and goes to the screen in a WRITE statement. The second asterisk (*) means the
free format or
list-directed: multiple variables in the sequence.
program standard_streams ! => means alias use iso_fortran_env, only: stdin => input_unit, stdout => output_unit, stderr => error_unit implicit none character(len=1000) :: text read(stdin, '(a)') text ! trim() Remove trailing blank characters of a string write(stdout, '(a)') trim(text) write(stderr, '(a)') 'This is an error message' end program standard_streams
# format specifier Python # d -> integer; f -> float; s -> string # use format or % %4.2f
%4.2f means 4 characters at total, with 2 floating points.
! format specifier is a string like '(e3.4)', the first letter means different data types and is surrounded by () ! l -> logic, i -> integer, es -> exponential (scientific, 1.2E+02), en (engineering, 12E+01), g (any, OS-independent) f4.3 -> float type, 4 character, three decimals ! integer: ix.y, x -> how many characters, y -> must use y characters (so add zeros if necessary) i4.3 -> 42 to ` 042` ! Leading number -> apply the same format to multiple characters 2(f6.3) -> will cause no white space between these 2 values ! therefore we need manually inserat `spaces`, here 2x means 2 whitespaces 2(f6.3, 2x)
Legacy: use ID to label and format statement (i.e. they are separated!)
open(unit, file=filename, action=“read/write/readwrite”, position='append/asis/rewind’), ! file unit is OS dependent and unknown ahead of time ! file unit is assigned only to one file before close. You can also determine the unit by yourself. ! 形参 `file =` can’t be omitted ! POSITION ! Rewinding -> start at the beginning ! asis -> begining if a fresh file, otherwise go to previous position ! append -> final position
write(fileunit, format_string) , text flush(fileunit) !flush the write buffer to the file
check existence of file
logical :: file_existence inquire(file=trim(filename), exist=file_exists)
Error handling keywords
Each of the
rewind statements allows passing the
err keyword parameters:
iostat = 0 if all good, otherwise positive
err—An integer error label to which the program will jump if the error is encountered
write(fileunit, ‘(a)’, iostat = a_number, err=b_number) ! if error, the program jumps to here to close the file b_number close(fileunit)
compile and linking